The following is a guest post by one of my friends – a brilliant biohacker who goes by the secret name “BigPapaChakra”. Let’s enjoy keeping him anonymous for now, shall we? After all, BigPapaChakra is just a darn fine nickname anyways, and I promise to reveal his identity in a future post.
In this article, which you can consider to be your official Black Friday gift list for biohackers or wanna-be health hackers…
…you’re going to discover some of the best, most effective, yet unknown biohacks on the face of the planet that are going to absolutely blow the mind of any biohacker or fitness/nutrition/health technology geek in your life. Most of this stuff is easy and inexpensive too! Just consider this our post-Thanksgiving day gift to you.
Enjoy, and leave your questions and feedback in the comments section below this post.
In my relatively short time here on earth, I’ve come across quite a few interesting modalities that can be used to enhance one’s body, mind, and spirit.
Interestingly, my journey into this realm stemmed from decisions and situations that are entirely opposite to what is typically associated with longevity, vitality, and performance. In fact, they caused me more problems than good, and that is how I discovered many of these paths to optimization, nifty gadgets, and extraordinarily kind and talented individuals.
Ironically, I have an odd fortune that allows me to become a better bio-hacker – a lack of funds. In my experience, the less money you have, the better bio-hacker, athlete, lover, etc. you can become… as long as your will perseveres and you throw in some dedication and effort. If you can’t, well, why not bio-hack your will? Nonetheless, I think that many bio-hacks can be accomplished with limited funds, and that’s what this blog will display.
I’m laying out ten effective, easy, and cheap bio-hacks for everyone to try (and when I say cheap, remember this is all relative to the tens of thousands of dollars some are spending on everything from muscle stimulation units to neurofeedback devices to impanted nanotech cyborg devices)! You’ll also find helpful “stacks” or ways that you can combine specific biohacks for an enhanced effect.
(Disclaimer: I’m not yet a physician of any kind. I don’t recommend any of these products or techniques as means to cure diseases or various ailments, nor do I think they should take the place of a licensed, trained, and trustworthy physician. This isn’t to take away from the efficacy of any of these bio-hacks. Don’t take anyone’s word as gospel when it comes to your health. Do your own research, trust your intuition, and find out what is or is not true for yourself. Some things work better for some people than others, hence why I always say, “to each their own.”)
1) tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation)
To try and explain this in the simplest sense, tDCS is essentially a cost-effective, easy-to-learn form of neurostimulation which uses a low powered constant current delivered to the brain. Don’t worry; this is a lot safer than it might sound. TDCS has been around for a lot longer than I originally thought – it was used by a man named Giovanni Aldini to improve mood in his patients as far back as the early 1800’s (1).
There are three forms of ‘stimulation’ (I’m not certain that is the best term for it, though that is what’s typically used): anodal, cathodal, and sham. Anodal is ‘positive’ and increases excitability in the region it is placed upon. Cathodal is ‘negative’ and does the opposite – decreases excitability of the region.Sham is just that… a sham. It’s more or less the control in studies.
To keep this brief, tDCS is used for (and successful in) a variety of problems, as well as enhancing healthy individuals cognition and emotions (2) (3). Don’t forget enhancing mediation (4). There are two ways that you can get ahold of this technology for cheap, in my experience: purchase a unit through tdcs-kit.com for under $40, or make your own. I personally have the unit through tdcs-kit called Foc.us. MindAlive has as similar device called the “David Delight PRO” but at a slightly higher pricepoint.
I have personally spoken to a man with Schizophrenia who used the same one, and this is part of his statement to me, “So to answer your question…Yes it has improved my mood which caused my motivation levels to increase. I found the mood placement is being used in almost the same setup as foc.us. So it wasn’t a surprise that it helped me with my focus/concentration. (…)I would say that this is better than any anti depressant out there by far even 1-2 weeks in. The concentration/focus seems to be a 24 hour effect.”
You can also go to Radio Shack and purchase electronics tutorials/teaching devices that are geared towards younger people and children. With this, you can learn basic electronics and how to rig a tDCS unit. There are videos of this on youtube.
Stack: (CAUTION: safety not yet established; more studies needed. Do your own research) studies have shown that D-cycloserine+tDCS causes the effects of tDCS to last much longer. Many of the studies are concentrated on specific regions of the brain, so effects haven’t been fully tested (brain region is a major variable in tDCS). This is potentially dangerous, but also potentially powerful in enhancing learning, retention, and accurate recall.
2) Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide is often seen as a ‘waste product’ of metabolism, but it in fact has a lot of uses and makes for a neat little bio-hack. To keep it short and sweet, I’ll use a quote from Ray Peat, Ph.D., “Breathing pure oxygen lowers the oxygen content of tissues; breathing rarefied air, or air with carbon dioxide, oxygenates and energizes the tissues; if this seems upside down, it’s because medical physiology has been taught upside down. And respiratory physiology holds the key to the special functions of all the organs, and to many of their basic pathological changes.”
There are some paradoxes when it comes to Carbon Dioxide and its effects on physiology. Namely, O2 and CO2 destabilize each other, yet CO2, produced in the cells, releases oxygen into various tissues. Anytime I increase CO2, my body temperature increases (which I will touch upon later), my blood pressure decreases, my extremities become warmer, and I feel more centered. My Resting Breath Hold time also increases. CO2 has been used to stop seizures, enhance neuropsychological therapy, enhance exercise and athletic performance, and is also shown to enhance plants utilization of water (5) (6) (7).
Search Google Scholar for therapeutic hypercapnia, or do a search for Ledislas J. Meduna who used CO2 as an adjunct to various forms of psychotherapy. There are various ways to increase CO2, such as eating carbohydrates, but one of the most effective is breathing into a bag for as long as comfortable a few times a day. The CO2 you expire starts to stack in the bag with each breath, increasing the amount you inhale. The two most notable devices you can purchase that are typically marketed for increasing CO2 content in your body are the BreathSlim and Frolov devices.
I personally own and use a BreathSlim, and Mark Sircus (who has been on the BenGreenfieldFitness podcast) uses and recommends the device. I recommended it to another individual who seemed to not have the greatest experience with it (the water spilled out of the sides, and didn’t give enough resistance as it should), so to each their own. There is a third, and similar device, called the Samozdrav Breathing Device, which measures ventilation at rest and approximate alveolar CO2 content (though I have no experience with this one).
Stack: Take a dose of baking soda in water (I prefer carbonated mineral water for more bicarbonate and CO2) prior to a bath containing Epsom salts (or magnesium chloride), baking soda, and salt while breathing into one of these devices or a paper bag. I intermittently drink more carbonated mineral water as well. I guarantee you will feel amazing during and after this.
3) HCO3, or more commonly, baking soda.
Baking Soda is amazing. It can literally be used for hundreds of things around the house, can be used for beauty and hygiene, but can also be used for heath and performance. Better yet, you can get a large amount of it for a few dollars. Taken orally, it increases CO2 and cell voltage in the body, along with buffering lactic acid. It also increases regional cerebral blood flow in a dose dependent manner (8).
It drastically increases exercise performance of all kinds, and typically enhances the absorption of creatine (9) (10). I’m sure some of you have used baking soda before, but I would honestly recommend it as part of my repertoire for any kind of workout or competition (as long as it isn’t banned/considered doping), as well as taking it throughout the day for general wellness purposes. The only negative that can come of this is when consuming a lot of calcium in which you can suffer from milk-alkali syndrome (11).
Stack: Same as above, or: load on baking soda prior to a workout, do deep nasal breathing the entire session, and when/if you become fatigued, take a break and breathe into a paper bag for a few minutes before resuming. Some Z-Health practitioners recommend this, as have physicians at the Silicon Valley Health Institute. I’ve used it for martial arts sessions as well.
4) Transcranial Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
This one is like my baby. There are a lot of uses for low level/cold laser therapy, but I’ll stick with transcranial purposes. Low Level Laser Therapy has been around since the sixties with the advent of the Helium-Neon (HeNe) laser first used on rodents in which it regrew their hair. But, it really goes back to 1896 with the use of the Spectro-Chrome designed by a color therapy researcher named Dinsah P. Ghadiali (Spectro-Chrome therapy was not used in 1896, but this was when Dinsah began researching and conversing with the likes of Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla) (12).
Not to delve too deeply into the extremely dense science of this, the main mechanism of LLLT is the delivery of photons to cells in the brain, directly affecting Cytochrome C Oxidase (CCO) which enhances cell respiration and energy production (13). In humans, it has successfully treated and/or reversed Traumatic Brain Injury, PTSD, Depression, Anxiety; post Stroke symptoms, as well as increasing emotional and cognitive abilities in healthy individuals. Careful attention is warranted, though – the effects largely stem from a biphasic dose response curve predicated on hormesis… there is such a thing as overdoing it. I have used LLLT to start reversing my severe HPPD symptoms with great success. I was stunned when I recently saw a neurologist at the University of Chicago and he (and his colleagues) had no idea what LLLT was.
There are a multitude of LLLT devices, such as (but not limited to): The Vetrolaser, TendonLite, Euon, and ThorLasers. Many of these devices unfortunately cost an arm and a leg, though, yet there is an alternative; Infrared Lights not marketed as medical supplies. LEDs are cheaper than lasers, and are no less effective. In fact, they seem to be a bit safer. You can find very cheap ones on Ebay under fifty dollars. I recommend this.
Stack: Combine LLLT with a mitochondrial supplement stack. Methylene Blue seems like a viable route, but I have no experience with this. I would recommend using the stack found in this Longecity forum thread, as I have used it with amazing results.
5) Indoor healing light spectrums
Continuing with light being a useful modality to well-being and performance, we get to something everyone should do – change indoor lighting. As of now, many people are aware of the damage blue light can do to circadian rhythms, sleep, and thus, all of health (keep in mind green, white, and violet are equally damaging). Unfortunately, many have yet to realize that they can simultaneously decrease their exposure to damaging wavelengths, and increase exposure to therapeutic, healing, “pro-life” wavelengths.
LEDs, halogens, incandescent bulbs, and heat lamps can all be used. Halogens emit an almost ‘sun-like’ spectrum of light (14), and have a large amount of red and near infrared light. These wavelengths actually have the capabilities of healing and protecting the retinas as well as increasing alertness without disrupting melatonin whatsoever (the nadir for melatonin disruption is right around 464nm) (15) (16).
I recommend switching out your general indoor lighting for these bulbs: http://bulbrite.iqlightbulbs.com/bulbrite-714025-250br40h.asp or visiting the LowBlueLight website for a wider array of choices. There is evidence that getting Incandescent bulbs with a red filter is better, acting through transmittance to increase red light; I’d imagine a red lampshade would do the same, albeit to a smaller degree. John Kellog actually reported about the therapeutic benefits of incandescent lights in a 200pg book known as Light Therapeutics (1910) (17). Personally, I would opt for incandescent lights, and occasionally you could place them closer to your skin (18-24 inches) for concentrated therapy. You could experiment with Halogens, which have a lot of healing wavelengths (more so than incandescents), but they have a lot more blue light and UV radiation i.e. damaging to the retinas and can disrupt circadian rhythms.
Stack: (1) Use five or ten 150 Watt incandescent bulbs for a few minutes in the morning to stimulate circadian rhythms. (2) Cover windows with a plastic film containing copper, which can remove some of the harmful aspects of sun light.
6) Monitor Body Temperature and Pulse
Measuring body temperature and your pulse rate is essentially a proxy for your metabolic rate and thyroid health. The basal body temperature is impacted by things other than metabolic rate and the thyroid, thus the pulse helps interpret this result (distinguishing results of healthy metabolism from cortisol, adrenalin, etc.). The temperature of your extremities aids in this process further. A lot of blood tests for the thyroid are extremely flawed.
Broda Barnes was a man who treated an absurd amount of patients who he found to have thyroid dysfunction. He argued that body temperature, measured before getting out of bed in the morning, was the greatest diagnosis for thyroid function (18). A good reading would be roughly 98.2 degrees Fahrenheit, though, again, a better diagnosis can be made when taking pulse and extremities into account. Broda Barnes stated that although this was not a perfect test, it was undoubtedly more reliable than TSH and other readings (19) (20). “More information can be brought to the physician with only the aid of an ordinary thermometer than can be obtained with all other thyroid function tests combined. “ Dr. Broda Otto Barnes.
Stack: Body temperature taken in morning (ASAP), after meals, before bed, etc. while tracking pulse and feeling for how warm your extremities are. Also, read Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness by Broda Barnes, in addition to The Thyroid by Thomas McGavack.
7) Experiment with Alkalinity
This is a topic that is often debated, and for a long time I was completely against the idea of measuring any form of alkalinity. This was before some interesting literature came out showing that net renal acid accumulation is linked to a lot of diseases (21) (22). One study analyzed data from 66,486 women, and the other, 98,995 women. What were the largest contributors to this ‘acid buildup’, so to speak? Increased phosphorous intake, increased sodium, and decreased potassium, magnesium, and calcium intakes.
Even latent acidosis can decrease health, namely resting metabolic rate (23). For everyone following an ‘evolutionary’ or ‘traditional’ diet, this isn’t hard to get around. Salt foods to taste, because sodium is important, but ensure adequate supply of other macro-minerals and electrolytes. This is only difficult because of the current fructophobia, even though the largest meta-analyses show that fructose is not as damaging as many are lead to believe. Not only this, but it has been used to treat diabetes, has functional roles in the human body, directly participates in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (creating reducing equivalents), and acts more like a ketone than other carbs (it is a ketose, as opposed to an aldehyde) (24) (25) (26) (27).
Moral of the story: don’t fear fruit – add it to your diet in moderate amounts, especially sweet tropical fruits. Adding fruit to a diet packed in fat soluble nutrients from liver, oysters, some shrimp and so on, might just enhance your metabolism, increase endogenous antioxidant levels, aid in the utilizing the PPP, and a lot more.
Stack: Use sodium bicarbonate prior to exercise and in baths; supplement potassium bicarbonate to increase alkalinity and potassium consumption; add magnesium bicarbonate to your water (28). All of these can easily be found on websites such as Amazon.
8) Supplement Stacks
There are a lot of interesting stacks that are being discussed and developed by people on various anti-aging boards. Keep in mind, not all these users are physicians, so maintain strict reservations and do your own research – never take anyone else’s word for what works or what is safe. The first one was discussed earlier, and I personally have a lot of experience with it. It’s called TULIP – The Ultimate Laser Protocol. It’s based around mitochondrial upregulation and protection paired with the use of red or infrared lasers and LEDs. It causes mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ROS, and greatly increased ATP levels.
The basic stack is PQQ, CoQ10, and Shilajit. PQQ and CoQ10 have been used individually to treat brain degeneration, and used together with even more efficacy (29); Shilajit synergizes with CoQ10, while also acting as an adaptogen. Taken together, they enhance each other. Other additions to this stack are creatine, exogenous ATP, Idebenone, ALCAR, and R-ALA (K-R-ALA is supposedly the best, and Dave Asprey recommends it, but I have never gotten ahold of any). The second one is known as CILTEP – Chemically Induced Long-Term Potentiation. Long Term Potentiation is one of the primary mechanisms of learning and memory.
The primary stack is artichoke extract, forskolin, phenylalanine, B-complex, caffeine (optional), ALCAR, N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (possibly not necessary based on the individual) (30). Lastly, there is the “Happy Stack”. This is all about cellular growth and renewal, myelination, increasing specific neurotransmitters, and so on (31). The primary stack is Uridine (find your goldilocks zone), DHA, and Choline.
Stack: Happy CIL-TULIP. A combination of each of them, but excluding some ingredients. Some are currently experimenting with this and having great results, though I haven’t tried it and personally would recommend great caution. The combination strongly affects various neurotransmitters, transcriptional factors, gene expression, and so on.
Beware, this is harder to pull off for cheap, but you can probably capitalize on the holiday discounts.
Magnetism, geopathic stress, bioelectricity, etc. is a fascinating area of research that I’m delving into. It has been known for hundreds of years since Harold Burr (possibly before him) that electromagnetic fields are necessary for and guide all life forms, celestial bodies, nature, and so on. Robert Becker (the “Father of Electromedicine”) regenerated human finger tips, healed diabetic ulcers with 100% success rate, and found magnetism to affect dedifferentiation of cells, being a viable alternative to stem cell treatments (32) (33). Yuri Kholodov found higher organisms (we are one) to be most ‘sensitive’ to changes in magnetic fields, and nervous tissue, especially in the brain and glial cells, to be the most sensitive tissues.
Electrokinetically treated water has enhanced exercise recovery and performance and is shown to have a higher activity of oxygen. If you want to shell out the big bucks, a Magnetico Sleep Pad would be a wise purchase. It uses unipolar magnets to recreate a strong magnetic field that our earth is currently lacking. This has widespread implications for cellular renewal, stem cell growth, telomeres, hormones, and much more (34).
Dr. Philpott also has a magnetic sleep pad that is bipolar and has a lot of good reviews. You could attempt to make your own magnetic sleep pad, but have to be extremely careful in your placement of the magnets, the depth of your mattress, the kind of magnet, etc. You can also use magnetic pads for your seats at your desk or in your car, along with magnetic jewelry, insoles, masks, and more. If the idea of magnetism and water sound odd to you, I would recommend reading the books or studies of Gilbert Ling and Albert Szent-Gyorgi. The biophysical state of cells, cell water, and their structure(s) are often overlooked in Western Medical and biological literature, and that’s the largest part of magnetic forces acting upon life forms.
Stack: (1) If finances aren’t a problem: Magnetico sleep pad, in addition to magnetic seat covers at your desk and in your car. If you have one, use an EarthPulse throughout the day and for nagging injuries, but not under the Magnetico pad as there are typically problems when combining these at once (for sleep). You can let your drinking water, juices such as kvass or even kombucha rest upon the pad to become magnetized. (2)
If finances aren’t currently in your favor, you can magnetize your water. Here are is what Paul Becker told me via email: “4 CUP COFFEE MAKER WITH HOT PLATE BASE 15 BUCKS AT WALLMART. 30 VOLTS POWER SUPPLY RADIO SHACK 20 BUCKS AND PACK OF ALLIGATOR CLIPS 2 BUCKS OR SO RADIO SHACK. KEEP THAT COFFEE MAKER ONLY FOR DISTILLED WATER AND MAKING THE COLLOID.” You can make colloidal silver this way, as well as magnetized drinking water. Search google scholar or electrokinetically modified water, you’ll be surprised.
10) Photons Therapy for Electromedicine
Another largely overlooked aspect of medicine, as well as ecological health and evolution on our planet, is the application of Tesla’s (and others like him) research. This is where Ed Skilling comes into play, with his alternative electromedicine therapies. He was commissioned by California Cancer doctors in 1959 and given a 30,000 Rife Machine to evaluate, and determined much of the Rife theory was inaccurate and decided to delve into electromedicine himself as members of his family had died of cancer (what the machines that he analyzed were used to combat)(35).
Ultimately, this is a technology that uses infrared light, photonic gases, sound and other light frequencies to stimulate your body’s natural healing processes. The machine is claimed to largely stimulate and aid in the optimal functioning of the lymphatic system which leads to body wide homeostasis. There are dozens of videos of different physicians using it online, and you can also watch presentations at various technology conferences as well. The manufacturers offer payment plans, low or no interest rates, and seem to be very helpful.
Stack: Stand ‘in’ the Photon Genie/Genius while doing advanced heart rate variability exercises and/or bag breathing.
Well, there ya have it! Some cheap and quick, yet undoubtedly effective (and also quite fun) bio-hacks for Black Friday and the holiday season; I hope you put some of these techniques to use. Remember to be safe, and most importantly, happy holidays!
(Major shout out and thanks to LostFalco of Longecity – the reason I know about LLLT and TULIP. Also thanks to Abelard Lindsay and MrHappy on Longecity, creators of the other two supplement stacks.)
Leave your questions, comments and feedback below!
Additional Helfpul Links And Resources
- (2) http://www.breathslim.com/
- (3) http://www.intellectbreathing.com/
- (4) http://www.samozdrav-world.com/en/about
- (5) http://www.amazon.com/Non-Rebreather-Mask-w-Vent-Adult/dp/B00B1FJNXS/ref=sr_1_7?ie=UTF8&qid=1380745479&sr=8-7&keywords=rebreathing%20mask&tag=viglink122377-20
- (6) http://stores.homestead.com/windsongpress/-strse-54/5-Liter-WindSong-Air/Detail.bok
- (7) http://www.ebay.com/itm/Unisex-Latex-Rebreathing-Mask-Breathing-Control-Latex-Hood-/190845858787?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item2c6f4cb3e3
- (8) http://www.amazon.com/Breath-Builder-BAG-Breathing-Bag/dp/B000XZYW6K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1380765439&sr=8-1&keywords=breathing%20bag&tag=viglink122377-20
- (1) Any. Arm and Hammer is fine, while also being available almost anywhere.
- (1) http://bulbrite.iqlightbulbs.com/bulbrite-714025-250br40h.asp
- (2) http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000CP19XA/ref=as_li_qf_sp_asin_il_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=B000CP19XA&linkCode=as2&tag=empowesusten-20
- (3) http://www.osram.com/osram_com/products/lamps/specialty-lamps/infrared-lamps/index.jsp?mkturl=uv-ir
- (1) http://www.ebay.com/itm/96-LED-60-degree-Night-Vision-IR-Infrared-Illuminator-Light-lamp-For-CCTV-Camera-/160987372402?pt=US_Surveillance_Gadgets&hash=item257b985b72
- (2) http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B008A6999E/ref=as_li_qf_sp_asin_il_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=B008A6999E&linkCode=as2&tag=rapefo-20
- (3) http://www.ebay.com/itm/48-LED-Illuminator-CCTV-IR-Infrared-Night-Vision-Light-12V-Power-Supply-Adapter-/251266500210?pt=US_Surveillance_Gadgets&hash=item3a80a68672
- (4) http://www.qlaserws.com/products.html
- (5) http://www.thorlaser.com/products/
Temp and Pulse:
- (1) Any reliable thermometer. A pulse oximeter would be a nice addition.
- (1) Any Sodium Bicarbonate
- (2) http://www.life-enhancement.com/shop/product/pb120-potassium-basics-by-durk-pearson–sandy-shaw
- (3) http://purebulk.com/potassium-bicarbonate-powder.html#.UpfUV8QWJr8
- (4) http://www.forresthealth.com/bi-carb-formula-250-caps.html?&bid=1&partner=19064
- (5) http://www.socialanxietysupport.com/forum/f11/make-your-own-magnesium-bicarbonate-drink-tastes-sweet-46555/
- (6) http://www.uniquewater.com.au/the-water/
- (1) http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/chn/docpdf/parent_aldini.pdf
- (2) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028393210002319
- (3) http://www.brainstimjrnl.com/article/S1935-861X(08)00040-5/abstract
- (4) http://shinzenyoung.blogspot.com/2012/07/meet-my-new-girlfriend-tdcs.html
- (5) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v499/n7458/full/nature12291.html
- (6) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v499/n7458/full/nature12411.html
- (7) http://www.ideaconnection.com/inventions/11744-Medical-mask-for-fast-and-efficient-suppression-and-pre.html
- (8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724528/
- (9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22941193
- (10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12900682
- (11) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk-alkali_syndrome
- (12) http://www.dinshahhealth.org/
- (13) https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/182368464/2013-gonzalez-lima.pdf
- (14) http://heelspurs.com/a/led/BLACK_BO2.gif
- (15) http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pr_story.asp?id=253
- (16) http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20112004-22093.html
- (17) https://docs.google.com/document/d/1jevSr-LykF08ualZgyhWPERCGB8k6JYy3jrYVweQ-NA/edit
Temps and Pulse
- (18) http://www.slideshare.net/roger961/is-986-really-normal
- (19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18443261
- (20) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOb2POQGE6g (interesting visual explanation)
- (21) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19410381
- (22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12450898
- (23) http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-C5YprOD1Gqw/T38G3PJ8FMI/AAAAAAAAEGY/Ny11n5tJPyM/s1600/a.PNG
- (24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2467321/pdf/postmedj00346-0026.pdf
- (25) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2603858/pdf/yjbm00642-0165.pdf
- (26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3382482/
- (27) http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/543fructose.html
- (28) http://www.rexresearch.com/beckett/1beckett.htm
- (29) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303106/
- (30) http://jn.physiology.org/content/91/5/1955.long
- (31) http://jn.nutrition.org/content/127/5/834S.full
- (32) http://jbjs.org/article.aspx?articleID=13521
- (33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1806700/
- (34) http://ston.jsc.nasa.gov/collections/TRS/_techrep/TP-2003-212054.pdf
Photon Theapy/Photon Genie