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Do Amino Acids Really Help You Exercise Or Are Nutrition Supplement Companies Pulling A Fast One On You? – Part 1

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It seems these days that the building blocks of proteins, affectionally known as “amino acids”, are tiny little gold nuggets that bestow superhuman powers upon anyone lucky enough to stumble upon them in a sports gel, capsule, fizzy drink or cocktail. After all, these little guys are starting to get put by nutrition supplement manufacturers into just about everything, from your engineered pre-workout snack, to your during workout beverage, to your post-workout smoothie mix.

But why are amino acids so prevalent now?

And more importantly, do amino acids actually work?

Do Amino Acids Really Help You Exercise Or Are Nutrition Supplement Companies Pulling A Fast One On You?

You’re about to find out, and have a bit of fun in the process.

Back in biology class, it was convenient to think of a muscle like a big Lego castle (or Lego pirate ship, depending on your tastes), and amino acids as all the little legos that made up the giant Lego structure (your muscle). Convenient, yes. Complete, no. The role of amino acids goes beyond building blocks – they are essential for the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolic pathways, mental stabilization, and just about every function that takes place within the human body. So using the Legos-are-amino-acids example, a more appropriate analogy would be that you dump all the Legos out of the box and they self-assemble in a magic pirate ship, then float into the air and fly around the room shooting miniature cannon balls.

In other words, the function of amino acids goes far beyond simple “building blocks”.

In the nutrition supplement industry (when I use that word, it seems to denote big fat guys in black suits sitting around an oak conference table, but in reality, most of these folks are skinny athletes in white shoes and shorts), amino acid supplements fall into two basic categories: Essential Amino Acids (EAA’s) and Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA’s).

In Part 1 of this two-part amino acids series, let’s review the first category: the EAA’s (do not pronounce this like a donkey “heehaw”. Just say the letters.)

Essential Amino Acids

Essential amino acids, as the name implies, are essential because they can’t be made by our bodies, like all the other amino acids. Instead, we have to get them from our diet. Have you ever heard of Private Tim Hall, AKA Pvt. Tim Hall? If you’re a biology or chemistry geek, you probably have, because he’s the pneumonic commonly used to remember the essential amino acids, which are Phenylanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Histidine, Arginine,Leucine and Lysine. Thanks Tim, we’ll send you a check if we ever win money in Biology Trivial Pursuit.

Anyways, let’s take a look at why the heck Pvt. Tim might do us good during exercise, starting with P.

Phenylalanine is traditionally marketed for it’s analgesic (pain-killing) and antidepressant effect, and is a precursor to the synthesis of norepinephrine and dopamine, two “feel-good” brain chemicals. This could be good because elevated brain levels of norepinephrine and dopamine may actually lower your “RPE” or Rating of Perceived Exertion During Exercise, which means you could be happier when you’re suffering hallway through a killer workout session or Ironman bike ride.

Valine, along with Isoleucine and Leucine, is a real player, because it is BOTH an Essential Amino Acid and a Branched Chain Amino Acid. Valine is an essential amino acid. It can help to prevent muscle proteins from breaking down during exercise. This means that if you take Valine during exercise, you could recover faster because you’d have less muscle damage. More details on that in the Part 2 of this article, which will focus on BCAA’s.

Threonine research is a bit scant. I personally couldn’t find much at all that explained why threonine could assist with exercise performance, but would hazard a guess that it is included in essential amino acid supplements because it is just that: essential. And many of the studies done on EAA’s just basically use all of them, rather than isolating one, like Threonine. For example, and this is a bit interesting for people who are masochistic enough to like working out starved, there is a significant muscle-preserving effect of an EAA + Carbohydrate solution ingested during training in a fasted state, and decreased indicators of muscle damage and inflammation. This basically means that if you popped some essential amino acids, even if you didn’t eat anything, you might not “cannibalize” as much lean muscle during a fasted workout session.

OK, sorry, I got sidetracked there.

Tryptophan is an interesting one. It is a precursor for serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter that can suppress pain, and if you’re taking some before bed at night, even induce a bit of sleepiness. The main reason to take tryptophan would be to increase tolerance to pain during hard workouts, games or races. But studies to this point go back and forth on whether or not that actually improves performance.

Isoleucine, another BCAA/EAA combo, has some of the same advantages of Valine. More on BCAA’s Part 2.

Histidine, as the name implies, is a precursor to histamine, and actually has some antioxidant properties and plays a key role in carnosine synthesis. Looking back, that sentence I just wrote is not very user-friendly, and is pretty much just geek speak. Here’s a clarification: histamine could help you fight off the cell damaging free radicals you produce during exercise, and carnosine helps you get rid of muscle burn more quickly, and helps turn lactic acid back into useable muscle fuel. So hooray for histidine, it gets a gold star sticker.

Next is arginine, and if you’re reading this and you’re an old man who has relied on a little blue sill to have a happier time in the sac, you can thank arginine. Arginine helps with nitric oxide synthesis, and nitric oxide is a vasodilator that increases blood flow and could help with exercise capacity (in the case of the blue pill, for one specific body part). Most of the studies on arginine show that it really helps folks with cardiovascular disease improve exercise capacity, and like tryptophan, the studies go back and forth on whether it really helps with the athletic population – but it has a great deal of promise.

Leucine is yet another BCAA/EAA combo. Yes, we will get to BCAA’s in Part 2.

Lysine is something my Mom used to take to help cold sores that she got from eating citrusy foods. That’s basically because it helps heal mouth tissue. But more importantly for exercising individuals, lysine may actual assist with growth-hormone release, which could vastly improve muscle repair and recovery, although if you take lysine in it’s isolated form, the amount you’d have to take to increase growth hormone release would cause gastrointestinal distress, or as I like to it, sad poopies. But combined with all the other essential amino acids, there may be a growth hormone response in smaller doses, and there is some clinical evidence that essential amino acid supplementation could stimulate growth hormone releasing factors.

That about wraps it up for essential amino acids.

The only thing I didn’t mention is that the EAA’s have a bit of an insulin and cortisol increasing effect. Before you draw back in shock and go flush all your essential amino acids down the toilet because you heard insulin and cortisol make you fat, remember that both insulin and cortisol are crucial (in smaller amounts) for the “anabolic process”, or the growth, repair and recovery of lean muscle tissue. The amount you get in essential amino acids is far different than the stress and insulin/cortisol response you get from eating a pint of ice cream while you drink whisky and work on an all-night project for work.

Not that I eat ice cream and drink whisky that often. But for now, I’ll put aside the chocolatey spoon and shot glass, stop writing, and let you sit back and absorb the information I’ve presented in this article. Don’t you feel all warm and geeky?

Questions so far? Leave them below! Unless you think I made a glaring scientific error, in which case you can shove it. Just kidding, leave your comments below, including the critical ones.

Part 2 coming Friday…

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54 thoughts on “Do Amino Acids Really Help You Exercise Or Are Nutrition Supplement Companies Pulling A Fast One On You? – Part 1

  1. I read part two over at Everymantri.com, and I had a question about timing and how much for taking each of both the EAAs and BCAAs. I currently take about 1000mg of BCAAs post workout (anything longer than 1 hr or a hard effort) Is that considered a sufficient amount? Would EAAs be taken at the same time, or would it be beneficial to take the two separately. Great articles, thanks!

    1. Ideally, you would take the EAA's BEFORE the workout (so blood levels of EAA's are high during the workout) and then take the BCAA's DURING the workout. For example, you would take 5 of these directly before: http://www.bodyhealth.com/MAP/index.asp?ac=pacifi… and then during, consume a gel, like Roctane, that has BCAA's in it. Many BCAA compounds also contain proteolytic enzymes, so after your workout, you could take 4 of these capsules: http://www.pacificfit.net/supplements.php#recover…

      IMPORTANT: We're talking about HARD and LONG workouts here, not a 30 minute jaunt on the treadmill. So for example, today I'll be riding 20 minutes to the pool, doing a 2000m swim, then doing 8×5 minute hill climbs on the run, then tempo time trialing another 20 minutes home. That's about a 2 hour workout, so something like this make sense for a workout like that.

  2. Is there any reason you couldn’t take a complete liquid amino acid complex supplement (before, during and/or after) that has all the BCAA and EAA in it? Since BCAA are part of the EAA group why take them separately?

    FYI – Bragg’s makes a nice spray amino acid that works well as an alternative to salad dressing.

  3. Bragg’s aside – I too use it as a food alternative only and not necessarily as a supplement for getting my complete AA’s.

    There are complete AA liquid (or pill) supplemented with both the BCAA and EAA in them. Any reason you couldn’t just take that kind of supplement rather than trying to take them separately? I generally take this kind of ‘complete’ AA in the AM before a fasted workout to preserve muscle (and help build post workout). Should I be taking BCAA and EAA separately? I do a lot of HIIT and Weights.

    Thanks as always for your excellent information

  4. Do recommend this type of supplimentation for long and slow workouts? I'm training for a 1/2 marathon and our long runs are typically 2 hours and are at a slower pace (1st 1/2 marathon).

  5. What should I be looking for in the supplement. Other than the MAP supplement that you recommended there must be others and I'd like to know what to look out for and what to avoid?

  6. Have you ever factored in on all the Bragg's controversy over soy, sodium and how it's made? There are so many arguments raging out there that I've just decided to avoid it completely.

    1. People equate the glutatamic acid in it to MSG, which is not technically true. they're chemically different HOWEVER I'm not convinced that there couldn't be some heavy processing with Bragg's that may form MSG, so I need to research this. Also, some people throw a fit over the HCL used to neutralize the soy, but your stomach is chock full of HCL. Finally, I *do* agree that soy should be consumed in moderation, and like any processed food, Bragg's does have preservatives and has to use heat, pressure and chemicals in it's treatment. But ultimately, it's a better protein source than the average soy sauce. However, there may be better alternatives. I'll look into this, and thanks for brining it up.

    1. Yes, I missed methionine. The body uses methionine to make a sulfur compound abbreviated, SAMe, which is made from methionine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). SAMe is a methyl donor in a ton of different biochemical reactions, including detoxification of metabolic byproducts and formation of neurotransmitters, cartilage, and glutathione (glutathione is a potent antioxidant).

  7. i am takink amplified creatine every day and taking map amino acids 30 mins before working out . am i doing this right. i work out bout 4 days a week.

  8. I have a question, I am limited to impact because I have health problems. The only thing I'm currently cleared to do from the Dr. is to swim, bike on a recubent bike about 40 minutes, and do light weight training. In order to help me medically feel better I need to lose 30lbs. Is this too light of a workout for amino acids? Will amino acids still help me too?

  9. I know this is 4 months after, but I have a quick question. I am currently working out (weights) 5 days a week as hard as I can, but I'm not breaking a sweat for some reason. I'm still a beginner which may be why. Anyway, I take a whey protein shake after the workout, and I want to start taking amino acids. I also take a optimum nutrition multi vitamins for men, and another protein shake at night after a small at home workout. Should I start take optimum nutrition amino acids? If so, when? Before or after my intense workout at the gym?

    Thanks!

  10. Hey Ben! I came across you a few months ago and am loving your intensity and knowledge! Thank you! Going to be adding aminos to my regimen, looking for advise on how much and often I should be taking them. Here is a brief bio 104 lbs F 37yrs of age 20 yrs endurance athlete between marathons, mnt bike racing, xc skiing, triathlons. I’m a mommy of two and want to be able to continue many years of playing hard with them! Thanks a bunch Ben! Much respect

  11. Hello im 23yr old and do some exercercises. Im very skinny. Someone gave me amino acid supplements and want to know if ok to use.

  12. Hey Ben, Im 45 yrs old and started working out 2 months ago. I’m losing weight slowly but not really seeing any muscle gain. I started at 214lbs and now weigh 203lb and am 5’11”. I work out about 1-1/2 hours every other day. Should I consider

    Supplementary amino acids? Creatine or both. I’m getting stoked on exercising and want good results

  13. Hi Ben,

    Have your views on EAA’s changed since writing this article back in 2011?
    Your recent podcast with Dr Minkoff suggests that there are really only 8 EAA’s not 10? As Arginine and Histidine are not required when the proper ratio of the other 8 are provided.

    This is an excerpt from the page on your own product Nature Aminos


    A: Histidine is actually not essential. When you take NatureAminos the Histidine level in the blood will rise within 1 hour. The absolute genius of NatureAminos is that when you have the essential 8 all the others can be made as needed. Also worth noting: Arginine, sometimes also touted as an “essential” amino acid, levels will rise alongside Histidine after taking NatureAminos. When you take NatureAminos, your body has all it needs to make any and all natural proteins – that, by the way, is why it’s called NatureAminos!

    I understand that viewpoints change as time goes on so could you clarify and perhaps update this article if it no longer holds true?

      1. I may have missed something but this link takes me to a podcast episode all about fixing your gut. I skim listened to the podcast but I couldn’t find any mention of amino acids?

  14. Ben,

    I know you did the Sealfit Kokoro and wanted to know what supplementation you would advise for those WOD’s . I am going to Kokoro 43 this coming June.

    Thank you,

    Barry

    1. Barry – call this question into the podcast at speakpipe.com/bengreenfield or book a consult at greenfieldfitnesssystems.com/ben and we can go through everything during either of those!

    1. I haven't seen any research to indicate otherwise. But I am *not* a physician and this is *not* to be interpreted as medical advice. Please talk to a licensed medical professional about all of this!

  15. I find ur articles nice n helpful.Thanks for that .Now, I need ur advise I am 40 years, body weight 73 kgs(reduced from 80 to 73 in 2 months of cardio exercises),height 172 cms .In the process My muscle size has drastically decreased,now I want muscular gain to its optimum .At present I do abs exercise in the morning for 1hour n weight training in the evening for 2hours ,6 days a week. Along with other guidance please provide me the list of supplements i have to intake with appropriate quantity, quality and timings for intake.

    1. Its very hard to say this as everyone is different. I need more details. If you want to go into detail book a consult at greenfieldfitnesssystems.com/ben and choose 20 or 60 mins and we'll get you scheduled for a Skype consult

  16. I was put on a specific amino acid program by an american doctor of naturopath, who has study the works of amino acids for over 30yrs. He says that taking amino acids,”ONLY” works if taken in the right combination and dosage to the indvidules needs. Would you agree with this?

  17. Hey Ben, I am 15 years old and I want to know if I should use Amino acid supplements. My workouts are usually only around 30 minutes long, but pretty intense, I am currently doing 70 pushups in 2 minutes and rising, I also do tons of sittups and ab workouts as well as benching,curling, etc.

  18. Hi Ben, this is some serious stuff and i am bit choked here as the kind of info sharing happening looks too difficult to digest, let alone the BCAA’s and AA’s. It would really help if you could please give me a simple suggestion to clear my confusion. I am 38 now and i have been working out reasonably well for close to 12 years on and off. But not into any kind of serious bodybuilding, the regular fitness and shape. I was 82kgs and now i am 76kgs. I do a regular workout of 15 mins cardio to end my workout. But other wise i do a routine workout everyday for on one portion of the body. Weekends i run for about 5000+ mts and workouts. This is draining me out and my muscles are all not supporting me.

    What do you suggest i should take on a regular basis to balance my diet and if discontinued shouldn’t affect much!!!

    With all due respect, you are doing a great share here. thx

    1. With that level of physical activity, I would just ensure that you dose with about 10 g of essential amino acids prior to your workouts and another 10 g for each hour during your bigger, more difficult workouts. That would be a very simple and doable approach.

  19. HELLO…IM 46 YRS OLD AND I WORKOUT AT A PLACE CALLED 9ROUNDS. ITS BOXING ,KICKBOXING COMPLETE BODY WORKOUT IN 30 MINUTES. I AM SO SO SORE. I WAS TOLD TO TAKE AMINO ACIDS TO HELP. I WANT TO LOSE WEIGHT AS WELL I CURRENTLY GO BETWEEN 121 AND 124.. WHICH IS DISCOURAGING…

  20. I feel a little sheepish asking this basic question, because I’m not a hard core athlete and my knowledge of supplementation is nil. But, I see so many amino acid drink mixes that advertise both muscle recover AND energy and focus, so I’m wondering what (if any) are the drawbacks of using an amino acid drink powder as a source of energy in place of something like a couple cups of coffee or in place of something like a Red Bull energy drink?

    1. To clarify, I mean to ask about the benefit of drinking an amino acid supplement just for the benefit of prolonged alertness–like for a desk job, or just getting through the mid afternoon slump?

  21. I’m 68 years old and still work 8hours per day in physically demanding job . Arms and shoulders are under pressure . I’v been taking 2 baca’s 3 times a day to maintain my muscle mass. It seems to work . Or am l wasting my money ?

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